The first transatlantic telegraph cable (1858)
The first transatlantic telegraph cable was over 3000 km long and ran between Valentia Island in southwestern Ireland and Heart’s Content in eastern Newfoundland. Telegraph cables used electric current to transmit coded messages over long distances. The Atlantic Telegraph Company, a British–American company, finished laying the first transatlantic cable in 1858. The main figures involved were American businessman Cyrus West Field (1819–1892), British engineers John Watkins Brett (1805–1863) and Charles Tilston Bright (1832–1888), British physicist William Thomson (1824–1907) and British electrician Wildman Whitehouse (1816–1890). On August 16, 1858, the first message was successfully sent from Queen Victoria to American President Buchanan. However, after just a few weeks, the cable was no longer useable, since the signal quality was insufficient and the voltage surge was poorly controlled.
Despite this failure, this innovation was the first successful attempt at transatlantic telecommunication. It significantly reduced the time needed to communicate between North America and Europe. Whereas ships took at least 10 days to cross the Atlantic, telegraphs took only a few minutes under optimal conditions. However, it was not until 1866 that a new, working telegraph cable established a more permanent link between Europe and North America.